of Clay, Sand & Gravel
All over the earth are deep beds of clay, sand and gravel.
They are conspicuously present on most of the surface of the earth. I have found
deep beds at the top of the Rocky Mountain ranges and in valleys on islands in the
carribean. Gravel is everywhere.
The traditional geologic theory states that they are the remains
of earlier mountains that have since worn away and all that is left is the quartz sand and
gravel. The gravel is rounded in shape because it has been worn in streams, tumbled along
for eons. The only problem is that natural gravel and tumbled gravel have very different
Gravel, in my opinion, proves that there was one heak of a
catastrophic event in the recent past. If you look at the surface of gravel you find the
most amazing details.
Microscopic inspection of natural gravel reveals that the surfaces
are not abraded like tubled gravel. Natural gravel has a variety of features, textures,
and finsihes. I have even found shrink wrinkled finishes like those found on
old avionics. Some have areas of small globules that have mirror finishes. These
types of finishes are very different from beach and stream worked tumbled gravel.
Look at the pictures on the right and you can plainly see that tumbled
gravel has a spherical wear plane over the surface with plucks that are gouged into the
Natural gravels on the other hand have surfaces that do not show a
spherial wear plane. They have textured suraces. Some have crystalyn surfaces and sharp
intersections of crystal planes. Others have shiney blisters on the surface. These are not
rare features of gravel, these are the norm. Any gravel that has not been stream or beach
tumbled has these features. I would estimate that 95% of all the gravel on the face of the
earth has never been tumbled.
The Bible discusses the formation of these materials during the flood of
Noah as the opening of the fountains of the deep.
During the catastrophe that the flood of Noah describes there were
gigantic fissures that formed in the crust. The crust cracked through to the molten
stratified layers of elements deep in the earth. Some of these layers contain liquid
silicon, which when mixed with oxygen becomes silicon dioxide or quartz.
During the catastrophe these cracks opened and closed repeatedly forcing
molten material to the surface if the earth.
There are many different types of sands and gravel. Each type is formed
by a specific set of conditions. There were a wide variety of mixes of material arriving
at the surface at different rates encountering different conditions. This explains all the
different types of clay, sand and gravel we find all over the surface of the earth.
Some materials were very thin and were sprayed as a fine mist into space
and formed fine clays of specific materials. Some mixes were thicker and formed droplets
of quartz that came upward into a sea, or fell into a sea and shattered into the coarse
Others formed globules of gravel of different sizes depending on the
thrust of the material the gaseous content of the air and the gravity condition at the
time of the expulsion.
There are even gigantic spherical granite boulders 10 feet in
circumference that have been found in Mexico.
The process of propelling the material upward was simple. As the crack
opens at the bottom molten material is drawn into the crack. See the page the data on crustal flexing. When this
section of crust rotates again around the tighter arc the material is forced upward and
out the top. This pumps the molten material upward higher up the crevasse where it is
forced upward and out as the crevasse slams back shut. This is material that has been at
extremely high temperatures and pressures, suddenly arriving at the surface from the
This rapid decompression causes the material to explode upward as the
pressure is released spraying the molten materials into the air. The event is described in
the Bible as the opening of the fountains of the deep. This is the process that formed all
the sands and clays that are intermixed in the layers of the deposited sedimentary
crust. Certain conditions would have material arrive at the surface as a
gaseous vapor. In these cases the materials condensed into clays and sands.
The larger vapor droplets formed larger grained material. These
sometimes were shattered into coarse grained sands by contact with water and rapid
cooling. The larger droplets and globules formed the gravel that is littered over the
earth in deep beds.
The right conditions at certain times formed very large rounded globules
of magnesium or granite gravel. Gravel, sand and clay all come in a variety of mixes and
sizes and the conditions that existed at the location determined the amount and the type
of deposition. Some deposits were vast like the sands that washed down the Rio Grande
creating the beaches that run for hundreds of miles. There were other sands like
white sands in New Mexico or the Big Bear dunes in Michigan where the specific sand is
only in a small area.
The molten material is sent aloft by the crustal pumping action and the expansion of
relieved pressure. During the apex of the event it stayed airborne for extended periods,
enough time to harden into smooth globes. Some gravel fell to earth and then was pummeled
by other gravel fracturing the brittle surface but the parts held together because the
inside was still soft and pliable.